Genital warts - NHS

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Genital warts

Genital warts are a common sexually transmitted infection (STI) passed on by vaginal and anal sex, sharing sex toys and, rarely, by oral sex. Treatment from a sexual health clinic can help.

Using sexual health clinics during coronavirus

Call a sexual health clinic if you need help or advice. Only go to a clinic if you've been told to.

Find sexual health clinic contact details

Non-urgent advice: Go to a sexual health clinic if you have:

  • 1 or more painless growths or lumps around your vagina, penis or anus
  • itching or bleeding from your genitals or anus
  • a change to your normal flow of pee (for example, it's begun to flow sideways) that does not go away
  • a sexual partner who has genital warts, even if you do not have symptoms

These things mean you may have genital warts. Go to a sexual health clinic to be checked.

Sexual health clinics are sometimes called genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics, or sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services.

Treatment can help remove the warts and stop the infection being passed on.

See pictures of genital warts on a vagina, penis and anus
Wart on the vagina
Small, rough wart below the vagina
Credit:

DR P. MARAZZI/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY

https://www.sciencephoto.com/media/295848/view

Wart on the penis
Cauliflower-like group of warts on the penis.
Credit:

DR P. MARAZZI/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY

https://www.sciencephoto.com/media/295869/view

Warts on the penis
Flat, smooth warts on the penis
Credit:

DR HAROUT TANIELIAN/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY

https://www.sciencephoto.com/media/88265/view

Warts on the anus
Cluster of warts around the anus
Credit:

Clinical Photography/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY

https://www.sciencephoto.com/media/861668/view

Information:

Why you should go to a sexual health clinic

You can see a GP, but they'll probably refer you to a sexual health clinic if they think you might have genital warts.

Sexual health clinics specialise in treating problems with the genitals and urine system.

Many sexual health clinics offer a walk-in service where you do not need an appointment.

A sexual health clinic will often get test results quicker than a GP surgery, and you do not have to pay a prescription charge for medicines prescribed by a sexual health clinic.

Find a sexual health clinic

What happens at a sexual health clinic

A doctor or nurse can usually diagnose warts by looking at them.

They will:

  • ask you about your symptoms and sexual partners
  • look at the bumps around your genitals and anus, maybe using a magnifying lens
  • possibly need to look inside your vagina, anus or urethra (where pee comes out), depending on where the warts are

It may not be possible to find out who you got genital warts from, or how long you've had the infection.

Treatment for genital warts

Treatment for genital warts needs to be prescribed by a doctor.

The type of treatment you'll be offered depends on what the warts look like and where they are. The doctor or nurse will discuss this with you.

Treatments include:

  • cream or liquid: you can usually apply this to the warts yourself a few times a week for several weeks, but in some cases you may need to go to a sexual health clinic where a doctor or nurse will apply it. These treatments can cause pain, irritation or a burning sensation.
  • surgery: a doctor or nurse may cut, burn or use a laser to remove the warts. This can cause pain, irritation or scarring.
  • freezing: a doctor or nurse freezes the warts. Sometimes the treatment is repeated several times. This can cause pain.

It may take weeks or months for treatment to work and the warts may come back. In some people, the treatment does not work.

There's no cure for genital warts, but it's possible for your body to fight the virus over time.

Do

  • tell the doctor or nurse if you're pregnant or thinking of becoming pregnant, as some treatments will not be suitable for you

  • avoid perfumed soap, shower gel or bath products during treatment because these can irritate your skin

  • ask the doctor or nurse if your treatment will affect condoms, diaphragms or caps

Don’t

  • do not use wart treatment from a pharmacy; these are not made for genital warts

  • do not smoke; many treatments for genital warts work better if you do not smoke

  • do not have vaginal, anal or oral sex until the warts have gone; but if you do have sex, always use a condom

How genital warts are passed on

The genital warts virus can be passed on even when there are no visible warts.

Many people with the virus do not have symptoms but can still pass it on.

If you have genital warts, your current sexual partners should get tested because they may have warts and not know it.

After you get the infection, it can take weeks to many months before symptoms appear.

You can get genital warts from:

  • skin-to-skin contact, including vaginal and anal sex
  • sharing sex toys
  • oral sex, but this is rare

The virus can also be passed to a baby from its mother during birth, but this is rare.

You cannot get genital warts from:

  • kissing
  • sharing things like towels, cutlery, cups or toilet seats

How to stop genital warts being passed on

You can stop genital warts from being passed on by:

  • using a condom every time you have vaginal, anal or oral sex – but if the virus is in any in skin that's not protected by a condom, it can still be passed on
  • not having sex while you're having treatment for genital warts
  • not sharing sex toys; if you do share them, wash them or cover them with a new condom before anyone else uses them

Why genital warts come back

Genital warts are caused by a virus called human papillomavirus (HPV). There are many types of HPV.

The HPV virus can stay in your skin and warts can develop again.

Warts may go away without treatment, but this may take many months. You can still pass the virus on, and the warts may come back.

Genital warts and cancer

Genital warts are not cancer and do not cause cancer.

The HPV vaccine that's offered to girls and boys aged 12 to 13 in England protects against cervical cancer and genital warts.

The HPV vaccine is also offered to men (up to the age of 45) who have sex with men (MSM), some trans men and trans women, sex workers, and men and women living with HIV.

Find out more about the HPV vaccine

Genital warts and pregnancy

Important

Tell your midwife or doctor if:

  • you're pregnant, or think you're pregnant, and you have genital warts or think you have genital warts

During pregnancy, genital warts:

  • can grow and multiply
  • might appear for the first time, or come back after a long time of not being there
  • can be treated safely, but some treatments should be avoided
  • may be removed if they're very big, to avoid problems during birth
  • may be passed to the baby during birth, but this is rare; the HPV virus can cause infection in the baby's throat or genitals

Most pregnant women with genital warts have a vaginal delivery. Very rarely you might be offered a caesarean, depending on your circumstances.

Page last reviewed: 24 August 2020
Next review due: 24 August 2023